♦ On 26 June 2015, the Vatican, with the help of the Arab-speaking Eastern Churches, concluded a second agreement, a “legal agreement” /”comprehensive agreement”/”comprehensive agreement” with the “State of Palestine” . According to the Palestinians, this concordaque supports a two-state solution to the conflict between Palestine and Israel “on the basis of the 1967 borders”.  Vatican officials stressed that the Holy See had officially recognized the State of Palestine since 2012.  According to the Vatican, this concerns the fiscal and legal status of Catholic institutions and collaborators in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.  Following the signing of the agreement, diplomatic relations were established between the two states. Prior to 1993, the alleged confiscation of property in East Jerusalem after the six-day war was a problem for the Vatican. [Citation required] The Jerusalem Declaration on the Capital of Israel was also important to the Vatican, contradicting the Vatican`s plan to make Jerusalem an “international city” under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. [Citation required] We are grateful for the work of the Permanent Bilateral Working Commission between the State of Israel and the Holy See to reach an agreement on financial issues, which we hope will soon celebrate its success. 2. “The Vatican and Israel are moving closer to an agreement,” La Stampa, 2013-01-30. vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/en/the-vatican/detail/articolo/israele-israel-israel-21799/ There is a competition between the different Christian groups that are forced to share their sanctuaries, and also among the world religions that have all the pretensions in the Holy Land. The Vatican supports a two-state policy in Israel that would remove Jerusalem from Israeli jurisdiction.
We are grateful for the signing on 10 November 1997 of the Church`s Legal Personality Agreement, which recognized the legal status of the Catholic Church and its institutions in Israel and whose full application is about to be concluded. Marshall Breger is a professor of law at the Columbus School of Law at the Catholic University of America. This excellent collection of essays will be a “must-read” for anyone interested in the Middle East, international politics and Catholic-Jewish law or relations. It examines the historic 1993 agreement between the Holy See and the State of Israel on a wide range of scientific aspects. Among the authors are the participants in the negotiations that led to the agreement, making it the final interpreter of the agreement and its historical and religious implications. ♦ in mid-2015, negotiations were still under way for a tax agreement with Israel to comply with Article 10, paragraph 2, of the basic agreement. “The text to be examined does not address sensitive issues such as territorial issues: the Vatican`s attitude towards East Jerusalem and the occupied territories remains unchanged and the problems related to ecclesiastical characteristics in this part of the holy city and in the West Bank have been deliberately set aside.”  The agreement would, however, exempt Catholic institutions from West Jerusalem, and the King of Morocco warned that the Vatican`s recognition would “give legitimacy to the Israeli occupation of Jerusalem and shake more than a billion Muslims around the world.”  Agreement, first with the PLO, then with the “State of Palestine” 2.